Pangasius fish and aquaculture first started within the 1940s in Vietnam and continues immediately alongside the Mekong River Delta area. This article will give an overview of pangasius fish, price, where to buy, is pangasius fish safe to eat.
Pangasius Fish profile
Pangasius is a genus of medium-large to very giant shark catfish native to contemporary water in South and Southeast Asia.
The time period “pangasius” is usually used to particularly discuss with the commercially essential basa fish, P. bocourti.
Lengthy well-liked with the Vietnamese, pangasius fish is exported to over 100 nations with precept markets in Europe, the US, and Russia. Demand for fish is excessive and anticipated to go up, whereas a variety of aquaculture manufacturing strategies has allowed the variety of fish to be produced to rise sharply.
Though pangasius fish is usually present in freshwater, it may reside in salt concentrations of around 0.7% – 1% and alum water (PH >5) which might be tolerated at temperatures of around 30°C.
With a streamlined physique, darkish gray-colored again, silver stomach, largemouth, and lengthy twin beard, Pangasius has extra purple blood cells than different fish, an extra respiratory organ, and might breathe by bubbles and pores and skin. This implies it is ready to tolerate environments with little dissolved oxygen.
Its progress price is speedy and it may reside within the wild for so long as 20 years. After round 2 months throughout breeding, it reaches about 10-12cm lengthy and 14-15 grams in weight.
By the age of 10, it may attain around 25kg in farming ponds, and people weighing between 800 – 1,100 grams after 6 – eight months (not together with the breeding stage) are greatest for harvesting.
Pangasius has a variety of qualities that make it an acceptable candidate for aquaculture. Its geographic vary for potential tradition covers areas with sufficient water assets similar to the worldwide tropics.
Extra lately, aquaculture operations have moved to Ben Tre, Tien Giang and Vinh Lengthy Provinces close to the Mekong River’s mouth the place ecological situations are beneficial because of pure tidal actions twice a day and a few giants and small islands removed from residential areas.
Manufacturing strategies similar to hormone-induced spawning have allowed Pangasius aquaculture to develop quickly and for the fish to turn into a globally essential product.
Areas similar to hybridization, the genetic choice for optimistic manufacturing traits, and elevated introduction to acceptable traditional environments additionally seem to supply potential for additional enchancment, alternatives, and growth.
The fish’s comparatively low value, delicate flavor, and delicate texture have allowed consumption to rise internationally.
In the meantime, large-scale manufacturing in Vietnam and extra manufacturing by international locations similar to China have led to the advertising and marketing of Pangasius filets at low costs.
This has considerably contributed to the fish’s speedy progress and acceptance of world markets.
BOdy length latterly flattened with no scales. Head comparatively small. Mouth broad with small sharp enamel on the jaw, vornerine, and palatal bones.
Eyes comparatively giant. Two pairs of barbels, higher shorter than the decrease. Fins darkish gray or black. Six branched dorsal-fin rays. Gill rakers usually developed.
Younger fish have a black stripe alongside the lateral line and one other lengthy black stripe beneath the lateral line; giant adults uniformly gray however typically with a greenish tint and sides silvery.
Darkish stripe on center of anal fin; darkish stripe in every caudal lobe; small gill rakers often interspersed with bigger ones.
Habitat and biology
Initially generally known as Pangasius sutchii or Pangasius hypophthalmus, this riverine freshwater species is restricted to the Mekong River, the Chaopraya River, and presumably the Mekong basins in Cambodia, Lao Individuals’ Democratic Republic, Thailand, and Viet Nam, along with the Ayeyawady basin of Myanmar, inside a variety of 19 °N to eight °N.
The species has quite a lot of widespread English names together with Sutchi catfish, iridescent shark-catfish, and striped catfish. It’s referred to as ‘Pa sooai’ and ‘Pa sooai khaeo’ in Laotian, ‘Pla Sawai’ in Thai, ‘Pra’, and ‘Trey pra’ in Khmer and ‘Cá Tra’ in Vietnamese.
Like all Pangasiid species, P. hypophthalmus is an extremely migratory riverine fish species that make long-distance migrations over a number of hundred kilometers (potamodromous) between the upstream refuge and spawning habitats and downstream feeding and nursery habitats.
P. hypophthalmus is omnivorous, feeding on algae, greater vegetation, zooplankton, and bugs, whereas bigger specimens additionally take fruit, crustaceans, and fish.
Females take at least three years to succeed in sexual maturity in captivity (being then over Three kg in weight), whereas males were typically mature of their second yr, in all probability taking about the identical time within the wild.
A mature 10 kg feminine can spawn over a million eggs. Wild broodstock usually spawns twice-yearly however in cages in Viet Nam has been recorded as spawning a second time 6 to 17 weeks after the primary spawning.
The life cycle of P. hypophthalmus is intimately tied to the annual monsoon flood cycle, with spawning happening in Might – June firstly of the monsoon season.
Within the dry season, this and different species congregate and shelter within the deeper refuge areas.
The spawning habitat consists of rapids and sandbanks interspersed with deep rocky channels and swimming pools.
The eggs are sticky eggs and are deposited onto the uncovered root programs of rheophilic tree species like Gimenila asiatica.
Aquaculture introductions have taken place to a number of different Asian international locations together with Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Myanmar.
The Tradition of Pangasius
Primarily reared in ponds and cages, Pangasius is normally stocked at excessive densities (round 60 -80 fish per m2) and grown for around 6- eight months earlier than reaching its harvest weight of around 1kg.
Men and women develop at related charges, with the copy temperature between 26 and 28°C.
The spawning interval is between February and October, with the age of sexual maturity identified to be 3 – 3.5 years.
Pangasius is additionally extremely fecund; females can produce as much as 80,000 eggs/kg and might be spawned on a number of occasions.
Pond manufacturing can result in yields of around 250 – 300mt/ha, greater than four occasions that of different aquaculture species.
Cage manufacturing happens in impoundments, lakes, or rivers, and stocking densities are usually around 100 – 150 fish/m3 and yields from around 100 – 120kg/m3.
Floating cages additionally assist preserve steady water alternately and permit greater fish densities and productiveness.
Pangasius tends to be exported as skinless, boneless fillets, and its flesh color will range from white, cream, yellow, or rose to rely on feed, processing, traditional situations, and the surroundings.
Floating feeds and good water high-quality results in white fillets, whereas yellow flesh is alleged to return from non-commercial or pure meal sources.
Pangasius by-products are additionally utilized in numerous functions similar to fishmeal, bio-diesel, and cosmetics, and since the flesh has a medium agency fine-grained texture and delicate flavor, it is also appropriate for a variety of value-added merchandise.
The tradition of Pangasius has confronted some points regarding environmental impression. For instance, the gathering of fry from the Mekong River lowered pure fisheries and impacted different species, however, this downside is being addressed by dwelling spawning strategies in addition to governmental restrictions on gathering fry and harvesting wild shares.
In the present day, farms are obliged to offer info on any potential environmental impression earlier than farming operations can start.
Pangasius reveals a variety of potential benefits by way of reproductive capability, resistance to low dissolved oxygen, and manufacturing yields.
Additional growth of aquaculture requirements will assist outline how the Pangasius aquaculture trade can enhance additional and safe a sustainable future.
Because the demand for secure and sustainable seafood continues to go up, it is possible that the tradition and consumption of Pangasius might turn into extra mainstream.
The map proven beneath is the output of the FAO statistics for Pangasius hypophthalmus producers international locations.
Nonetheless, this doesn’t current the entire story, since Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Bangladesh, China, and the Lao Individuals’ Democratic Republic are additional producers however don’t report them individually.
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