Sciaenidae is a family of fishes in the form of performance which is usually referred to as drums or croakers in the context of repeated pushing or drumming sounds. The family consists of about 66 to 70 genera of approximately 286 to 298 species.
The wings of a long surface of a skionid almost reach the tail, and there is a groove between the surface ray and the spine, though the two halves are distinctly colored, usually in shades of brown, and each side has a lateral line that extends to the tip of the shrub.
The anal fin of the family Sciaenidae or drums fish or croakers usually has two spines, while the surface fins are deeply grooved or separated. Most species have a circular or pointed body. The face is bent and usually inferior. Their crooked process involves beating the abdominal muscles against the swimming bladder.
Skids are found all over the world, both in salt and saltwater, and are generally fed benthic carnivorous, continuous, and small fish.
They are small to medium-sized, bottom-dwelling fishes mainly living on the banks of the estuary, bay, and mud river.
Family Sciaenidae or drums fish or croakers avoid latent water, such as coral walls and marine islands, with a few notable exceptions (e.g., reef croaker, high-hat, and spotted drum), which live in warm-winter and tropical waters, and in Southeast Asia, Northeast. Heads are represented in South America, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of California.
Most fishermen in the United States consider eating freshwater family Sciaenidae or drum fish or crocker like carp, gar, and buff fish not useful, although there are many people who enjoy fishing and eating these species, despite their limitations.
These are great food and sport fish and are usually caught by surf and pier fishers. Some important commercial fishery species, the significantly smaller yellow croaker with a landing of 218,000-407,000 tonnes in 2000-2009.
According to the FAO’s Fisheries Statistics, the family Sciaenidae or drums fish or croakers was the 25th most important fishery species worldwide. However, a large part of the catch at the species level is not reported.
According to the FAO’s fraud statistics, the category “Crokers, Drums, Elsewhere” is the largest of the skionids with the annual landing of 431,000–780,000 tonnes in 2000-2009, most of which was reported from the West Indian Ocean (FAO) and North- Western Pacific (FAO Fishing Region 61১).
The cracking mechanism
One notable feature of the family Sciaenidae or drums fish or croakers is their ability to produce the word “croaking”. However, the pitch and use of crouching vary among species.
Croaking ability is a distinctive feature of the Schianids. Cracking mechanism in family Sciaenidae or drum fish or crocker is used by men as a call for mating of some species.
To produce crooked sound, specialized muscles vibrate against the swimming bladder. These muscles are called sonic muscle fibers and are driven horizontally around the swim bladder by the fish body, which is attached to a central tender around the swim bladder.
These sonic muscle fibers are repeatedly contracted against the swim bladder to create a croaking sound that gives the drum and crocker their common name, effectively using the swim bladder as a resonant chamber.
The large swimming bladder of the family Sciaenidae or drum fish or crocker is more widespread and stalked than other species, which aids in cracking. In some species, sonic muscle fibers are present only in males.
These muscles strengthen the mating season and allow for atrophy during the rest, disabling the crouching process.
In other species, especially the Atlantic croaker, the croaking mechanism is present in both sexes and is active throughout the year.
These species are thought to use cropping for communication, such as declaring risks and locations when in wastewater.
Croaking in contact
In some species of family Sciaenidae or drum fish or croaker, cocking is used for communication, except for attracting mates. For species that have the ability to crocodile year-round, their groups can communicate low aggression warnings as well as a location in cloudy waters during group feeding.
In species that do not have the ability to hedge year-round, attracting snakes is usually not limited to males.
One disadvantage of croaking ability is that it allows bottled dolphins to easily identify large groups of crockers and drums for broadcasting their positions, indicating a large amount of food for dolphins.
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