The Atlantic Horse Mackerel, scientific name Trachurus trachurus is also named as the European Horse Mackerel. People also tell it as Common Scad, which is a species of Jack mackerel in the family Carangidae. It is found in Europe and Africa in the East Atlantic Ocean and in the Southeast Indian Ocean. It is an important species of commercial fisheries and is listed as a threatened species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
The mackerel of the Atlantic horse has a very thin, very compact body, with the upper jaw reaching the front of the eye, and the lower jaws extending outward to the upper jaw.
The eye contains advanced adipose leads. It has two dorsal fins, the first being long and seven thin spines with the final spine being much shorter than the others.
The second surface fin is separated from the first by a narrow interval and 29–33 with soft rays much longer than the first.
The anal fin is almost as long as the second-page fin and there are two separate spines on the anterior end. The mid-sized pelvic fin has a single spine and five soft rays and is produced below the end of the pectoral fin base.
A curved line of 3-5 knit scooters runs from head to tail, with each spine becoming smaller in size and increasing in size toward the tail.
The lateral line contains a total of 66-67 scales, of which 31-36 scut utes. It is dark blue with silver flanks and a white abdomen, with a dark spot on the operculum.
This species achieves a maximum length of 60 cm (24 inches), though it usually weighs 25 cm (9.8 inches) and weighs 1.5 kg (3.3 pounds).
Mackerel of the Atlantic Horse occurs in the North and East Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.
In the Atlantic Horse Mackerel, it is found from Norway to South Africa where it can extend around the Cape of Good Hope across Maputo, the coast of Mapambique, the Indian Ocean coast of India.
However, if Trechurus capensis is considered a valid species, this species is restricted to the North-East Atlantic. It was recorded in Cape Verde but is thought to only appear as a wetland there.
Habitat and Biology
Atlantic nesting mackerel is a benchoplasmic species commonly seen on sandy layers at depths of 100-200 m (330-660 ft), although it has been reported as 1,050 m (3,440 ft) deep and is sometimes found near the surface of the water.
It is a migratory species, moving north in the summer months, and returning to the south when sea temperatures begin to decline.
Two stocks of the northeast Atlantic are recognized, with the west stock expanding from Ireland to the Bay of Biscay in early spring, and in the summer moving north toward the southern coast of Norway and north to the North Sea.
During the summer the reservoirs of the North Sea expand to the southern part of the North Sea and then move north to the South-North Sea, Skagerak, and Kattegat. Without Mauritania, this species has its original spawning season from November to January, and the mackerel (Trachurus trekie) of the related quinine horses extends in June and August.
During the summer months from June to August, Ireland reached its peak in July, irregularly spreading in Irish batches, every 140,000 eggs and hatching larvae every 5 millimeters (0.20 inches) in length.
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Adolescents of this species are often adorned with juveniles of other fish species, mainly with Atlantic herring (Clupier clupea) and horse mackerel, such as the Mediterranean horse mackerel (T. equator) and blue jack mackerel (T. chitraratus).
Teens often have to face shelter in jellyfish tents. The highest recorded age in South Africa was 24 years and 40 years were recorded in northeast Atlanta.
They are considered to be two to four years of age for wives. Far from Mauritania, juveniles are caught at depths of 200–300 m (660–980 ft) and mature fish are taken in shallow waters less than 100 m (330 ft).
The age and growth of the Atlantic horse mackerel vary in different parts and is influenced by the wide range and levels at which the shocks are absorbed.
Diet of this species is copepod, shrimp, small fish and squid in both adolescents and adults. An examination of the contents of the stomach of the Atlantic horse mackerel caught in the Aegean Sea has recorded a total of 5 different species, which are composed of five major systemic groups, Polychite, Crustaceans, Mollusks, arrowheads and bone fish. The highest percentage of eating copepods, euphrasids, and mycids.
Bonefish are the second type of food to be eaten, while polychaet and arrow worms rarely record food items. During the year the kelpids and mycids make up the largest proportion of prey in the diet, in which the fish show very little seasonal variation, with the most frequently occurring prey, except in the spring.
Larger fish are fed 16.9 centimeters (6.7 inches) higher in the larvae of bonefish. No fewer than 45 species of copepods were identified in this survey, and Acartia clauses and Owens media were numerous and significant throughout the year.
The crustaceans were the most important prey eaten by this species in all asons tutu, however, bonefish were the most important prey item for large fish.
Category and nomenclature
Atlantic horse mackerel is a species of tracheurus, but Constantine Samuel Rafinesque used Trachurus direct as a species in 1, but Carolus Linnaeus used the direct name of Schaumbar, and Rafinesque’s name was already invalid since Schaumbar described Trachurus.
The genus Trachurus is part of the Carangaidae family subfamily Carangina, the largest family in the Craniiformes sequence is a mixture of generic and precise names Greek trachea meaning “rough” and aurora meaning “tail”, an ancient name for the horse mackerel, probably early childhood. As.
The common name horse mackerel originated from the belief that other fish rode on its back but it could have originated from the old Dutch word horsemackrill meaning a fraud that spread over a shallow or hill and was adopted as “horse mackerel” in English.
Cape Horse mackerel (Trachurus capensis) is considered by some authorities to be a subspecies of T. trachurus capensis of Atlantic horse mackerel, and it is thought that there are not enough series of these taxa specimens on the coast of Africa to confirm this. The validity of this taxon.
Atlantic horse mackerel are commercially made for use in trolls, longlines, purse signs (using artificial lighting), traps and line gear. In 7, the Food and Agriculture Organization stated that the total catch was 322 of 277 tons, the largest catch being in the Netherlands and Ireland.
There are total allowable catches (TACs) in the North Sea for this species and the landing was consistently below this level but TAC is not in line with scientific advice.
The North Sea has called for a management plan to be developed for Atlantic horse mackerel but currently, there is no specific management target for it.
The stock must be evaluated and management objectives set before the fishery is viewed as sustainable.
The IUCN classifies Atlantic horse mackerel as the population of European waters decreases by more than ninety percent off the coast of West Africa, meaning that this species has decreased by at least 1 -40% compared to the length of the last three generations, estimated at 30-35 years.
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) has classified the safe biological limits of exploitation of the species as below.
The population is gradually decreasing with the increase of pressure on fishing at the most sustainable yield since 2006, with less recruitment since 2006.
Atlantic horse mackerel is consumed fresh. It can be stored by cooling, salting and drying, smoking and canning. It can be prepared by frying, broiling or baking.
It is said that meat has a delicious taste with oily ingredients which is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, nutritionally Atlantic horse 100 grams of mackerel meat provides 97 kilocalories of energy and is composed by:
Water: 77.4 g
Protein: 19.8 g
Fat: 2 grams
Cholesterol: 64.4 mg
Total minerals: 1.3 g
Phosphorus: 224 mg